Friday, October 9, 2015


In the Arab Spring (not a grassroots movement) the rule of the Muslim Brotherhood was advanced with the support of the West. But tyranny by popular proclamation isn't Liberty, or even democracy. Geo politically the policy has destabilized the entire Middle East and North Africa.

Sep 1, 2015 In the Arab Spring, Tunisians hoped that jobs and prosperity would follow the rise of democracy in their country. Now, Tunisia is the number 1 supplier of rats for the Islamic State.

UPDATE: The progressive supranationalists of Nobel Committee striking again! The Economist has the gall to call the Arab Spring disaster in Tunisia "a rare success". A country that, like Egypt, managed to save itself from the onslaught of democratic Islamism in the nick of time! As we read in this log, Tunisia is the number 1 supplier of ISIS rats! The Nobel Peace Prize ought to be renamed the Orwell Peace Prize!

Sep. 3, 2015

Tunisia, the #1 Supplier Of IS Rats

This video explains why Liberty is so terribly fragile and extremely hard to get. Tunisians hoped that going to a ballot box would "create jobs". This is what they were let to believe. It's ridiculous! Only economic ignoramuses can come to such a statement. The tribal mind is locked in a vicious cycle: tyranny breeds the need for more tyranny. The cycle can only be broken when a large chunk of the population discovers his individuality and starts finding personal values. As long as the people see (collectivist) ideologies as the solution, there will not be freedom and prosperity but more unemployment and poverty, disenchanted young people, and waves of former protesters joining yet another form of tyranny. 

April 23, 2014

 The Obama-Muslim Brotherhood Nexus

Obama has consistently supported oppressive Islamic regimes, while throwing liberation movements under the bus: from Iran's Green Movement to Turkey's Kemalists. "MB infiltrated Obama govt."

NOTE: This blog is primarily about the Arab Spring and how it played out in the Middle East. News related to the Muslim Brotherhood particularly is available on this live blog.
On Wednesday evening, GBTV unveiled a powerful documentary, “Rumors of War III,” exposing how radical Islamists, including the Muslim Brotherhood, are infiltrating American government at its highest levels. Above is a video clip from the program outlining some of the key players involved. (Source

Jan. 22, 2014

US Silent on Muslim Brotherhood VIP Treatment

The U.S. State Department is refusing to comment days after it emerged that they ordered the Department of Homeland Security to give members of a Muslim Brotherhood delegation traveling to the United States VIP treatment so they could bypass airport security. The story first emerged on Friday last week after the Investigative Project on Terrorism obtained a document (PDF) as a result of a FOIA request proving that Muslim Brotherhood members traveling through Minneapolis Airport, New York’s John F. Kennedy Airport and Dulles Airport were handed “port courtesies,” with the State Department telling the DHS to ensure the men “not be pulled into secondary upon arrival at a point of entry.” (...) Could America’s security have been put at risk by people working inside the State Department? Earlier this month, retired U.S. Air Force Gen. Tom McInerney made the explosive claim that there were “at least 10 or 15″ Muslim Brotherhood sympathizers working for the State Department. (Source)

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August 12, 2013

McCain Fuels Anger and Conspiracy in Egypt

What did McCain do and say in Egypt to earn the ire of millions of Egyptians? First, most offensive to Egyptians—and helpful to the Brotherhood's cause—is McCain's insistence on calling the June 30 Revolution a "military coup." (...)  Further angering Egyptians is McCain's insistence that all arrested Brotherhood members be released from prison. (...) McCain's call to release Brotherhood leadership validates the widespread belief in Egypt that America is a fellow conspirator with the Brotherhood. (...) McCain also personally visited Khairat al-Shater, the multi-millionaire deputy chief of the Brotherhood who is currently incarcerated on charges of treason and terrorism. Interestingly, Shatter was not even a member of Morsi's government. Why is McCain visiting a civilian? Shater's status as a major figure in the largest Islamist organization in the world is leading Egyptians to connect the dots.

Even Shater himself, understanding the awful visuals, asked McCain to visit "the legitimate president" Morsi instead. U.S. media has said little about the administration's ties to al-Shater; however these ties are well-known among Egyptians: ambassador Anne Patterson was frequently seen going to Shater's residence. (...) in short, McCain's remarks and actions in Egypt have further confirmed the popular narrative—as memorably displayed by countless anti-Brotherhood and anti-Obama placards raised during the June 30 Revolution—that U.S. leadership is aligned with the Brotherhood, and thus ultimately a supporter of terrorism. Americans can no longer afford to ignore this serious accusation with broad implications. (...) Egyptians believe the U.S. fears that Morsi and others, if tried, would reveal the nature of their cozy relationship with the U.S. government, leading to any number of ugly revelations—treasonous ties and conspiracies, the exchange of billions of dollars, and Sinai issues. Hence, McCain wants them freed. (Source)

Aug. 7, 2013

Republican Senators Cause a Storm of Anger in Egypt

Brilliant! Senators John McCain and Lindsey Graham did their best to prop up the Muslim Brotherhood and attack political leaders during their short visit to Cairo. In response, military leaders lashed out at McCain for interfering with the country’s internal conflict. McCain and Graham also said the country was near “all-out bloodshed.” The two US senators exacerbated anti-US feelings in the country. Nice work, guys.

The Huffington Post reported:
Egypt’s military-backed government on Tuesday harshly rejected statements by visiting U.S. Sens. John McCain and Lindsey Graham, who called the military’s month-old takeover of power as a “coup.” McCain (R-Ariz.) and Graham (R-S.C.) had used the word “coup” at an afternoon press conference to describe the manner in which Egypt’s military had seized power from the Muslim Brotherhood’s elected president, Mohamed Morsi, in early July. (...) A spokesman for the interim government, Sherief Shawki, immediately dismissed the characterization. Shawki also said the involvement of McCain and Graham was unwelcome, adding, “We don’t want foreign intervention to be imposed on us.” In a statement later on Tuesday, distributed by Egypt’s Middle East News Agency and reported by Al Jazeera’s Rawya Rageh, a top media advisor to Egypt’s interim president, Adly Mansour, offered a stronger rebuke. The statement accused McCain of twisting facts, and dismissed his remarks as “clumsy,” or “irresponsible,” depending on the translation. 
It’s hard to see what the two were hoping to accomplish with their public statements. What a disaster. (Source)

July 30, 2013

EU Foreign Policy Czar Meets Morsi 

Increasingly the Western establishment, including politicians, media and NGOs are shifting from a wait-and-see attitude to open alignment with the ousted Islamist president.

The EU's Foreign Policy Czar, former communist Baroness Ashton has had a two hour midnight meeting with ousted Muslim Brother Morsi at an undisclosed location. Prosecutors formally remanded Morsi into custody on Friday for 15 days, charging him with murder and espionage. Ashton's meeting comes amid rising expressions of concern from lawyers, human-rights activists and foreign diplomats for information on Morsi's location and welfare. Some human-rights researchers said the charges suggested a politically motivated attack. Some reports have Ashton saying that Morsi has access to TV and news papers.

French Foreign Minister Wants Morsi Released

French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said on Tuesday that Egypt's deposed leader, Mohamed Mursi, should be released, calling the country's political situation "very critical." "France calls for the rejection of violence and for the release of political prisoners, including former president Mursi," Fabius told journalists in Paris.

July 27, 2013

West's support of MusBros Backfiring also in Tunisia

Police began firing teargas after the arrival of thousands of opposition protesters who had been attending the funeral of the assassinated secular politician Mohamed Brahmi. Protesters threw stones back at police and there were several injuries. Secular opposition parties are demanding the dissolution of the parliament and the Islamist-led government. "The people want to topple the regime!" and "With our blood and with our souls we will sacrifice ourselves for the martyr!" people in the crowd shouted. "Ghannouchi, assassin, criminal," others chanted, referring to Rached Ghannouchi, leader of the ruling Islamist Ennahda party that Brahmi's family says was behind the killing. (Source)

Middle East is Rejecting Islamist Rule

Erdogan is showing himself the Muslim Brotherhood dictator that he is. The world is waking up to the fact that Islamists and democracy are inherent contradictions. Arab Spring was a lie that had to collapse in the face of reality. After Turkey and Egypt, now Tunisia, Libya and Syria are rejecting their rule. As we see what Erdogan is doing to the foreign press, watch what he's capable of with the media at home!

Turkey's prime minister has threatened legal action against a UK newspaper for publishing an open letter criticising his handling of recent protests. Recep Tayyip Erdogan accused the The Times of "renting out its pages for money". Hollywood celebrities and academics were among those who signed the letter this week accusing Turkey's government of "dictatorial rule". (Source)

July 26, 2013

After 2nd Assassination, Tunisia Resisting Islamic Rule

The country that first broke into 'Arab Spring' is going up in flames. Tunisian opposition leader Mohamed Brahmi, a secular, socialist nationalist, has been assassinated outside his home in Tunis, in the second high-profile political killing this year. In February the killing of prominent opposition figure Chokri Belaid triggered mass protests and the resignation of several government ministers. The shooting dead of Mr Brahmi, the 58-year-old leader of the nationalist Movement Of The People Party, has prompted new protests in Tunis and other cities across the country. (Source includes video)

22 July 2013

Clinton Protege Closely Related to Mrs Morsi 

Hillary Clinton’s protege, Deputy Chief of Staff and closest advisor – has close ties to the Muslim Brotherhood. Huma Abedin has much fewer than six degrees of separation (1 or 2 depending on your interpretation) from Egypt’s ousted Muslim Brotherhood president – Mohammed Mursi. One year ago, when Walid Shoebat discovered the names of 63 leaders who make up the Muslim Sisterhood – which is essentially nothing more than the female version of the Brotherhood – we learned that Huma’s mother, Saleha, was one of those leaders. Little attention has been paid to the other 62 leaders, however. One of them is Najla Ali Mahmoud, the wife of Mursi. Both are members of the Guidance Bureau, which proves fallacious, the claim that Najla is just an innocent and na├»ve spouse. This would make Huma’s mother a close, personal colleague of the wife of a virulently anti-Semitic racist who has officially been declared the first president-elect of post-Mubarak Egypt. Mursi also sat behind a Muslim cleric at a presidential campaign rally before the first round of elections, nodding in approval as the cleric enthusiastically informed the crowd that under Mursi, Jerusalem would become the new capital of the next Caliphate. (Source) Huma Abedin is married to NYK mayoral candidate Anthony Weiner

July 19, 2013


One of the least commented aspects of ousting Egypt’s Morsi is the defiant act of the Saudi Royal House in backing the ouster of the Brotherhood and supporting the military restoration. The Saudi move is unprecedented in its open defiance of White House declared backing for the Muslim Brotherhood. The implications of the split are huge. (Source)

The Saudis had given secret assurance to Defense Minister and Chief of the Army, General Abdul Fattah al-Sisi, that the Saudis along with other conservative Gulf oil states including Kuwait and UAE would guarantee financial support should the Obama Administration cut the €1 billion annual aid to Egypt’s military in retaliation for ousting their man, Morsi.

On July 17, the Egyptian transitional government confirmed that it has received €6 billion in grants, loans and fuel from Saudi Arabia and the UAE. Saudi Arabia approved €4 billion in aid to Egypt and the UAE has offered €2 billion. (...)

Within minutes of the Saudi and UAE backed Egypt coup, the Emir of Qatar took note of the implications and announced his abdication in favor of his son, Tamim. Hamad bin Jassem al-Thani, who had shaped Qatar’s pro-Muslim Brotherhood foreign policy, has been silenced, replaced by a military man who had been serving as deputy interior minister. The new Qatar leadership is now using words like “reassessment”, “recalibration” and “corrections” to discuss their foreign policy. (...)

The Saudi decision to take bold action to stop what it saw as a disastrous US Islamic strategy of backing Brotherhood revolutions across the Islamic world has dealt a blow to the mad US strategy of believing it can use the Brotherhood as a political force to control the Islamic world (...)

July 17, 2013

Fmr UK Ambassador: "Obama's Cairo Speech Was Omen"

Former UK Ambassador Charles Crawford @CharlesCrawford says Obama's Cairo speech set the stage for the disaster in Egypt.
As a former Ambassador myself, I can tell you that once a vast unhappy crowd starts carrying pictures of your country’s ambassador and calls for her/him to pack up and go home, things have gone badly wrong in the bilateral relationship. Thus with U.S. Ambassador Anne Patterson in Cairo. She is seen by large parts of Egyptian society as a symbol of incompetent U.S. meddling. She is denounced for getting too ‘involved’ in Egyptians’ affairs or for backing the wrong side, or both. How did U.S. diplomacy in the Middle East reach this sorry pass? I can’t help feeling that the famous speech delivered by President Obama in Cairo in June 2009 gives us some clues. 

July 16, 2013


According to Al- Watan News (and Fox News) the International MB organization held a secret meeting in Istanbul and considered latest developments in Egypt. The source based the news on some Turkish sources claiming that many of MB top leaders and leaders of other Islamist groups were placed in a hotel near Istanbul’s Ataturk Airport (...) Turkey has stood against Egyptian army measure to resign Morsi. Repetition of its stance has forced Egyptian Foreign Minister to summon Turkish ambassador in Cairo to announce its opposition with the views of Turkish government and diplomatically warn Ankara against the negative impacts of its stances. (Source)

Here's Part 2 of The Glazov Gang

The Gang members gathered to discuss The Brotherhood-Benghazi Connection, analyzing Morsi’s fall and the revelations it may yield. The episode also featured a segment entitled Longing for the Brotherhood, focusing on why Obama is missing Morsi and still backing him after his overthrow. H/T JihadWatch

July 15, 2013

Egyptian Magazine: Muslim Brothers In Obama Regime

An Egyptian magazine claims that six American Islamist activists who work with the Obama administration are Muslim Brotherhood operatives who enjoy strong influence over U.S. policy. The Dec. 22 story published in Egypt’s Rose El-Youssef magazine (read an IPT translation here) suggests the six turned the White House ‘from a position hostile to Islamic groups and organizations in the world to the largest and most important supporter of the Muslim Brotherhood.’ The story is largely unsourced, but its publication is considered significant in raising the issue to Egyptian readers. The six named people include: Arif Alikhan, assistant secretary of Homeland Security for policy development; Mohammed Elibiary, a member of the Homeland Security Advisory Council; Rashad Hussain, the U.S. special envoy to the Organization of the Islamic Conference; Salam al-Marayati, co-founder of the Muslim Public Affairs Council (MPAC); Imam Mohamed Magid, president of the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA); and Eboo Patel, a member of President Obama’s Advisory Council on Faith-Based Neighborhood Partnerships. (Source)

Muslim Brotherwood Scheme To Destabilize Jordan

The downfall of the Muslim Brotherhood regime in Egypt has raised fears in Jordan that the Islamists may try to export their crisis to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, one of the first Arab countries to voice support for the bloodless coup that toppled the regime of Mohamed Morsi. Although King Abdullah appears to have been relieved by the collapse of the Muslim Brotherhood regime in Egypt, he nevertheless has good reasons to be concerned about increased attempts to undermine his monarchy. Signs of the impending trouble awaiting King Abdullah emerged in the past few days as supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood recruited Syrian refugees in Jordan to take part in pro-Morsi rallies in Amman and other cities. (Source) H/t @metzada3833

Debonair Gossip About the MB Spoxman
Nice bit of light hearted Middle Eastern gossip to start the week off. Muslim Brotherhood media spokesman, Gehad Al Haddad @gelhadded has a British passport and his LinkedIn profile mentions he was the Clinton foundation's man in Egypt for a couple of years as well. Check twitter status for more LOL

Obama can't define what's a 'military coup'

In his article, Mahmoud Salem @Sandmonkey is setting the record straight "regarding the legitimacy issue" brought by the Muslim Brotherhood and its supporters. In other words, if the process by which a 'legit' government came to power was fatally flawed, is its ouster by the military still to be considered a coup? In these pages we have argued that Morsi's regime was illegitimate because every Sharia based government is, since it violates individual rights.

Senator Rand Paul labors on the assumption that Morsi's ouster indeed constitutes a coup, and comes up with following interesting problems:

U.S. law states that we can’t send military and other types of aid to any country whose duly elected head of state is deposed by a coup. U.S. law clearly says that we cannot send such aid where the military plays a decisive role in the coup. This law allows no presidential waiver. Aid cannot be reconsidered or restored until a democratically elected government is elected. Yet, as President Obama has so often done with other laws and even the Constitution, he ignores it. The Obama administration has refused to acknowledge that the military takeover in Egypt is a coup. When asked directly to spell out the State Department’s definition of a coup, spokeswoman Jen Psaki refused, saying only that, “I’m happy to get you that, but I wouldn’t ascribe, you know, specific words. Each scenario is different. And if you need our specific, formal, government definition, we’ll get that around to everybody.” The State Department has yet to send a response.  
Thursday morning, it was reported that this relationship included delivering four F-16 fighter jets to Egypt in the next few weeks in addition to the eight we sent in January. Another eight are scheduled to ship later this year. It should also be noted that when the Egyptian military helped oust Mr. Mubarak — the classic definition of a coup d’etat — the Obama administration also declined to acknowledge even then that a coup had taken place. When we continued giving F-16s to Mr. Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood after Mr. Mubarak, I offered an amendment to stop military aid to Egypt. It was defeated 79-19. The United States has cut off weapons aid in the past after military officers overthrew civilian governments in the Ivory Coast, the Central African Republic, Fiji, Honduras and Mali. In Egypt, however, where the regimes are constantly changing, our foreign-aid policy never does. This week, I introduced legislation again that would cut off foreign aid to Egypt. We either have a nation of laws, or we don’t. If we are a nation of laws, foreign aid to Egypt should immediately end. (...) (Source)

July 12, 2013

Obama Regime Calling For Morsi Release 

State Department spokeswoman Jen Psaki called Friday for the release of ousted Egyptian President Mohamed Morsy from detention, marking the first time the United States has made such a call. Psaki said the detentions of Morsy and members of the Muslim Brotherhood were "politically motivated" ;-) and urged the military to let them go. (Source)

July 10, 2013

Why Obama Is Supporting the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt

Egypt's Daily News has an excellent piece by Farid Zahran why the US is supporting the Muslim Brotherhood, and explains why it is a grave mistake.

July 5, 2013


Evidence that the Obama administration is unhappy with the Egyptian people’s liberation from Muslim Brotherhood rule continues to emerge. As reported today by Youm 7, according to Muhammad Heikal — “the Arab world’s most respected political commentator” and for some 50 years a political insider — soon after the overthrow of Morsi, U.S. ambassador Anne Patterson assured Hisham Qandil, who hours ago was Egypt’s Prime Minister, that “there are many forms of pressure, and America holds the keys to the Gulf.” (...) Thus, and once again, the Obama administration makes indubitably clear that its primary interest in Egypt is to see the Muslim Brotherhood stay in power, the Egyptian people’s will — the will of tens of millions of secularists, liberals, moderates, and Christians — be damned. (Source)

July 4, 2013

"After Morsi, They Hate Obama Most"

Morsi is the most hated man in Egypt, a close second is US President Obama, a close third is US Ambassador to Egypt Anne Patterson (photos). While Obama scored points with the Egyptian people by helping to ease Mubarak out, he was seen as abandoning the plight of the people with his strong support of Morsi while ignoring the Muslim Brotherhood's repression of the people. Patterson, had continually refused to meet with the opposition. On June 18 the ambassador made a speech discouraging street protests: "Some say that street action will produce better results than elections," Patterson said. "To be honest, my government and I are deeply skeptical. (Source)

July 3, 2013

"Try Replacing the Cabinet, Oust the Prosecutor"

The New York Times is spinning with all the might it can muster!
The vast protests gripping Cairo put President Obama in a position both awkward and familiar, recalling the winter of 2011, when he grappled with what to do about another embattled Egyptian president, a restive military, and angry young Egyptians quick to see a meddling American hand in their political drama. Then, as now, Mr. Obama has moved gingerly, placing a call to President Mohamed Morsi late Monday evening with a message not unlike the one he delivered to his predecessor, Hosni Mubarak, two and a half years earlier: Exercise restraint and allow the protesters to express their views peacefully. American officials have broached the possibility of Mr. Morsi’s calling early elections, a senior administration official said, but added, “We are not pushing it as a preferred U.S. option.” Other options include Mr. Morsi’s replacing his cabinet or ousting an unpopular prosecutor. But officials and outside analysts caution that the United States has little leverage over either the Morsi government or those demanding his ouster. (...) 

"Arab Spring Was a CIA and NED Operation"

Egyptians firmly lay the blame for Morsi’s calamitous year in office at the feet of the White House. As the photos below illustrate, Egyptians are fully cognizant of the fact that the Obama administration played a key role in contriving the revolution that toppled former President Mubarak. Signs held by protesters include, “Wake up America, Obama backs a fascist regime in Egypt,” “Obama Supports Terrorism,” and “Obama Your Bitch is Our Dictator.” The signs also condemn the role of Anne Patterson, the US Ambassador to Egypt. As we previously highlighted, the 2011 revolution in Egypt was far from a grass roots uprising given that its organization was aided by establishment NGOs like Freedom House (linked to the CIA) and National Endowment for Democracy (NED). (Source)

July 2, 2013

Another pretty picture has surfaced from Egypt!

Banner in Tahrir Square on June 29, 2013 on the eve of the Second Egyptian Revolution. 

July 1, 2013

Obama Officials Hold Secret Meetings With Hamas

A Hamas leader claims the terrorist group has had "direct meetings" with U.S. officials close to the White House despite a longstanding American policy to have no contact with Hamas. The claim from Hamas leader Ghazi Hamad was reported in a Palestinian news outlet.

Top American representatives were in meetings Hamas had with European ambassadors and officials about two weeks ago, he said. The officials discussed removing Hamas from the list of designated terrorist organizations, but that "these contacts have not yet reached the level of decision-makers," Hamad said in a Sky News Arabia report translated by the Investigative Project on Terrorism.

The alleged meeting has not yet been reported in Western media. His comments can be viewed here. (Source)

June 30, 2013


After Morsi, the second biggest target during the Second Egyptian Revolution is US Ambassador Anne Patterson. Patterson met in secret with some Muslim Brotherhood people. She is her master's voice. Obama supports the Morsi regime.

In a related story this week, an Egyptian politician claims that the US Ambassador to Egypt is part of a Muslim Brotherhood “sleeper cell.” Raymond Ibrahim reports for Jihadwatch (Source)

UPDATE: RT has an interesting interview with William Engdahl, an award-winning geopolitical analyst and strategic risk consultant whose internationally best-selling books have been translated into thirteen foreign languages. Here's an excerpt:
William Engdahl: I think a number of issues. Number one – is trying to ram a Sharia constitution down the throats of the Egyptian people. That goes against Egyptian cultural tradition – 80-90 per cent of the population are Sunni Muslims – but it is a tradition of tolerance for other religion groups, Coptic and other Islamic groups. The other thing is the economy. Morsi has done nothing to improve the economy. In fact the economy has generated youth unemployment to bulge to an explosive level. That I think is a lot to do with the tinderbox that you see in the streets right now. But the other thing is that the military hasn’t yet weighed in as to whether they are going to continue to back Morsi as they have done under enormous Washington pressure – they are dependent on Washington for military aid and have been for decades. But the interesting new factor is that the Tamarod campaign – the reorganized opposition group that led the protest a year ago in Tahrir Square and elsewhere – they have claimed to have gathered a 15 million-strong petition asking for Morsi to step down. I think this is a make or break situation. The Obama administration continues to back the Muslim Brotherhood, which is a very unfortunate thing, but that’s a part of a larger geopolitical agenda that Washington and the State Department have built up over the past years. (Source)


This file is related to the larger process of "Arab Spring", a series of revolutions which broke out in 2011 in Tunisia and Egypt, which deposed secular dictators and replaced them with theocratic tyrannies under the rule of the Muslim Brotherhood.

These coups were 'legitimized' by democratic elections. Democracy however, is not an end in itself; rights are (article). Democrats fail to understand that distinction. Theocracies can only exist in violation of individual rights. Therefore they are illegitimate by definition.

In Libya the dictator Ghadaffi was deposed by a NATO intervention that led to regime change. Syria is still a work in progress.

We contend that the entire operation is part of a man-made plan hatched in the Obama regime to bring the Muslim Brotherhood to power. It is also supported by Qatar, Hamas and Turkey. The nefarious ultra Brotherhood has since been recast as 'secular' and 'moderate' (in comparison to the Salafi factions, supported by the United Emirates and the Saudis, that is).

With the revolution enjoying a second chance in Egypt, and the Kemalists in Turkey trying to prevent that country from sliding into a Neo Ottoman Empire under Erdogan and the AK Party (also a Muslim Brotherhood brand, as is Hamas in Gaza) there is finally some meaningful push back from this process.

Historical archive "Arab Spring"